The quick answer is yes and no. You cannot console game from Steam, but console games are on Steam. Steam is a digital distribution platform for video games developed by Valve which owns Steam. Steam also distributes games not owned or developed by Valve such as Bioshock. Games like Bioshock, which are not developed by Valve, are available for play on Xbox. However, if you wanted to transfer over your progress on a game which you played via Steam to your Xbox, you are out of luck. There is no crossing over your progress from Steam games to Xbox.
What If You Have a Steam Library?
Even if you have a robust Steam library, it’s going to have to stay on your PC. Games that run on PC simply are incompatible with the software that operates an Xbox (or PS4 for that case). Your PC is likely to run on Microsoft Windows, but even so, your PC games will not be able to work on a Microsoft Xbox.
The Xbox App for Windows 10
If you wanted to play your Xbox One games as PC games, then you could use the Xbox App for Windows 10. The app can stream Xbox games on your PC. You need to purchase the games as Xbox One games first however.
What Games Can You Play on Steam but Not Xbox
Valve, the owner of Steam, has developed the following games which cannot be played on consoles.:
- Dota 2
- Half Life 1&2
- Team Fortress
- Counter Strike Go
- Gary’s Mod
As you noticed, some of these games are very popular esports games. Unfortunately, if you don’t own a gaming PC, you likely will never be able to play these titles. Valve has expressed a desire to make their games Xbox compatible (like some are compatible for PS4). Efforts to bring Steamworks to Xbox have been stymied by restrictions Xbox Live has regarding patches and content updates. The way in which content is distributed on Xbox Live would limit the usefulness of Steam, making the endeavor not worthy of the effort.